New Craters on Mars
New Craters on Mars
PSP_010200_1805  Science Theme: Impact Processes
Although most of the craters HiRISE usually images are ancient, impact cratering is an ongoing process on the Martian surface.

While very large craters are rare, smaller ones with diameters of a few meters form on timescales rapid enough for Mars missions to confirm the presence of a new crater. Data from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on the (now defunct) Mars Global Surveyor, the Context Camera (CTX) on MRO, and HiRISE have dated craters to within a few years or even months, based on repeat images that show no craters in the earlier image and craters present in the later image.

Most of the new craters identified by CTX and HiRISE have been located in Mars' dustiest areas, where a new impact will scour dust from the surface and reveal darker underlying rock. This color difference makes the craters easier to spot. Other, less dusty areas of Mars are certainly being bombarded as well, but the size of the craters makes them difficult to detect without stark color contrasts. Once a new dark spot has been identified by CTX, HiRISE will take a follow-up image to confirm that the dark spots are in fact impact craters.

Many of the newest craters are part of a crater cluster, like this one. This cluster is about 350 meters (almost a quarter mile) across at its longest, and the largest crater in the image is 5 meters (16 feet) in diameter. These clusters likely result from breaking up of the impactor before it strikes the surface. How widely dispersed the craters are depends on the strength and density of the impactor. Scientists can study these clusters to learn more about the object that created them.

Written by: Nicole Baugh  (20 January 2010)
Acquisition date
29 September 2008

Local Mars time

Latitude (centered)

Longitude (East)

Spacecraft altitude
261.3 km (162.4 miles)

Original image scale range
26.2 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects ~79 cm across are resolved

Map projected scale
25 cm/pixel and North is up

Map projection

Emission angle

Phase angle

Solar incidence angle
56°, with the Sun about 34° above the horizon

Solar longitude
134.2°, Northern Summer

For non-map projected images
North azimuth:  97°
Sub-solar azimuth:  26.7°
Black and white
map projected  non-map

IRB color
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Merged IRB
map projected

Merged RGB
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RGB color
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map-projected   (455MB)

IRB color
map-projected   (206MB)

Black and white
map-projected  (172MB)
non-map           (280MB)

IRB color
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non-map           (197MB)

Merged IRB
map projected  (125MB)

Merged RGB
map-projected  (122MB)

RGB color
non map           (194MB)
B&W label
Color label
Merged IRB label
Merged RGB label
EDR products

IRB: infrared-red-blue
RGB: red-green-blue
About color products (PDF)

Black & white is 5 km across; enhanced color about 1 km
For scale, use JPEG/JP2 black & white map-projected images

All of the images produced by HiRISE and accessible on this site are within the public domain: there are no restrictions on their usage by anyone in the public, including news or science organizations. We do ask for a credit line where possible:

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona.