Hydraotes Chaos
Hydraotes Chaos
PSP_009709_1810  Science Theme: Sedimentary/Layering Processes
Hydraotes Chaos is an equatorial region of chaotic terrain located near some of the large outflow channels on Mars. Chaotic terrain near the outflow channels (ancient flood channels) is thought to form when ices beneath the surface rapidly become liquid or gaseous and escapes, and the remaining solid material collapses.

Chaotic terrain is called "chaotic" because it consists of a large jumble of randomly shaped mesas (hills) and troughs. Many regions of chaotic terrain are located at the head (start) of the outflow channels, suggesting that the origins of the two classes of feature might be related to each other.

The mesa located in the center of the image has elongated depressions that might be evidence of past fluvial activity.

Written by: Kelly Kolb  (26 November 2008)
Acquisition date
22 August 2008

Local Mars time

Latitude (centered)

Longitude (East)

Spacecraft altitude
271.4 km (168.7 miles)

Original image scale range
54.3 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects ~163 cm across are resolved

Map projected scale
50 cm/pixel and North is up

Map projection

Emission angle

Phase angle

Solar incidence angle
55°, with the Sun about 35° above the horizon

Solar longitude
116.1°, Northern Summer

For non-map projected images
North azimuth:  97°
Sub-solar azimuth:  33.2°
Black and white
map projected  non-map

IRB color
map projected  non-map

Merged IRB
map projected

Merged RGB
map projected

RGB color
non-map projected

Black and white
map-projected   (366MB)

IRB color
map-projected   (160MB)

Black and white
map-projected  (205MB)
non-map           (194MB)

IRB color
map projected  (57MB)
non-map           (148MB)

Merged IRB
map projected  (332MB)

Merged RGB
map-projected  (322MB)

RGB color
non map           (150MB)
B&W label
Color label
Merged IRB label
Merged RGB label
EDR products

IRB: infrared-red-blue
RGB: red-green-blue
About color products (PDF)

Black & white is 5 km across; enhanced color about 1 km
For scale, use JPEG/JP2 black & white map-projected images

All of the images produced by HiRISE and accessible on this site are within the public domain: there are no restrictions on their usage by anyone in the public, including news or science organizations. We do ask for a credit line where possible:

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona.