North Polar Changes over 6 Mars Years
North Polar Changes over 6 Mars Years
ESP_062793_2655  Science Theme: Polar Geology
MRO has been observing Mars for 6 Mars Years (MY), each of which lasts for 687 Earth days. Shown here is an impact crater on the north polar ice cap, which contains an icy deposit on the crater floor.

These inter-crater ice deposits shrink and expand or change shape or surface texture from year to year, In this animation, we can see the appearance of this crater fill in MY 29 (2/2008), 30 (8/2010), 31 (7/2012), 33 (2/2016), 34 (1/2018), and 35 (12/2019).

Written by: Alfred McEwen  (13 January 2020)
Acquisition date
19 December 2019

Local Mars time

Latitude (centered)

Longitude (East)

Spacecraft altitude
316.2 km (196.5 miles)

Original image scale range
from 31.7 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 63.4 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning)

Map projected scale
25 cm/pixel

Map projection

Emission angle

Phase angle

Solar incidence angle
65°, with the Sun about 25° above the horizon

Solar longitude
122.8°, Northern Summer

For non-map projected images
North azimuth:  126°
Sub-solar azimuth:  321.3°
Black and white
map projected  non-map

IRB color
map projected  non-map

Merged IRB
map projected

Merged RGB
map projected

RGB color
non-map projected

Black and white
map-projected   (376MB)

IRB color
map-projected   (255MB)

Black and white
map-projected  (164MB)
non-map           (139MB)

IRB color
map projected  (43MB)
non-map           (160MB)

Merged IRB
map projected  (125MB)

Merged RGB
map-projected  (115MB)

RGB color
non map           (134MB)
B&W label
Color label
Merged IRB label
Merged RGB label
EDR products

IRB: infrared-red-blue
RGB: red-green-blue
About color products (PDF)

Black & white is 5 km across; enhanced color about 1 km
For scale, use JPEG/JP2 black & white map-projected images

All of the images produced by HiRISE and accessible on this site are within the public domain: there are no restrictions on their usage by anyone in the public, including news or science organizations. We do ask for a credit line where possible:
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona.