Exposed Bedrock in the Koval’sky Impact Basin
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
Exposed Bedrock in the Koval’sky Impact Basin
ESP_050314_1510  Science Theme: Rocks and Regolith


1080p (MP4)
720p (MP4)
Listen to the text


800  1024
1152  1280
1440  1600
1920  2048
2560  2880
2736  4500
4K  8K


PDF, 11 x 17 in


This image shows partially exposed bedrock within the Koval'sky impact basin, which is on the outskirts of the extensive lava field of Daedalia Planum. Daedalia Planum is located southwest of Arsia Mons, which may be the source responsible for filling the crater with lava flows and ash deposits.

On one side, we see bright bedrock with scattered dark blue spots. The dark blue spots are boulders shedding from the outcrops. The color range of the bedrock provides some information on its composition. The blue color is indicative of the presence of iron-rich minerals that are generally not oxidized (i.e., rusted), unlike most of the ruddy Martian surface. Volcanic rocks are common on Mars. Possible candidate minerals for the bluish materials are often consistent with iron-rich minerals, such as pyroxene and olivine. The ridges may represent remnants of the original surface of the lava flows that filled the Koval'sky impact basin.

NB: The region is named for M.A. Koval’sky, a Russian astronomer.

Written by: Gavin Tolometti, Livio L. Tornabene, Jon Kissi and Zach Morse (audio: Tre Gibbs)  (27 June 2017)
twitter  •  facebook  •  google+  •  tumblr
Acquisition date
20 April 2017

Local Mars time:

Latitude (centered)

Longitude (East)

Range to target site
254.0 km (158.8 miles)

Original image scale range
50.8 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects ~152 cm across are resolved

Map projected scale
50 cm/pixel and North is up

Map projection

Emission angle:

Phase angle:

Solar incidence angle
41°, with the Sun about 49° above the horizon

Solar longitude
352.7°, Northern Winter

For non-map projected images
North azimuth:  97°
Sub-solar azimuth:  39.2°
Black and white
map projected  non-map

IRB color
map projected  non-map

Merged IRB
map projected

Merged RGB
map projected

RGB color
non-map projected

Black and white
map-projected   (151MB)

IRB color
map-projected   (76MB)

Black and white
map-projected  (63MB)
non-map           (95MB)

IRB color
map projected  (24MB)
non-map           (95MB)

Merged IRB
map projected  (178MB)

Merged RGB
map-projected  (163MB)

RGB color
non map           (91MB)
B&W label
Color label
Merged IRB label
Merged RGB label
EDR products

IRB: infrared-red-blue
RGB: red-green-blue
About color products (PDF)

Black & white is 5 km across; enhanced color about 1 km
For scale, use JPEG/JP2 black & white map-projected images

All of the images produced by HiRISE and accessible on this site are within the public domain: there are no restrictions on their usage by anyone in the public, including news or science organizations. We do ask for a credit line where possible:
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona.