Russell Crater Dune Gullies
Russell Crater Dune Gullies
ESP_018872_1255  Science Theme: Seasonal Processes
Russell Crater has a large field of dunes, including a mega-dune over 500 meters high.

This image was acquired in winter on Mars, when the dunes are covered with carbon dioxide ice (dry ice). The sun has just come up, and is just 3 degrees above the horizon. At this low light level small ridges cast long shadows and the sides of channels facing the sun are bright. This lighting emphasizes the troughs on the dunes and even small ripples can be detected.

Also apparent are “sublimation spots” that are caused by the evaporation of the dry ice. They will fade when the ice is gone.

Written by: Candy Hansen  (4 October 2010)
Acquisition date
06 August 2010

Local Mars time

Latitude (centered)

Longitude (East)

Spacecraft altitude
251.1 km (156.0 miles)

Original image scale range
100.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning) so objects ~302 cm across are resolved

Map projected scale
100 cm/pixel and North is up

Map projection

Emission angle

Phase angle

Solar incidence angle
87°, with the Sun about 3° above the horizon

Solar longitude
128.8°, Northern Summer

For non-map projected images
North azimuth:  96°
Sub-solar azimuth:  45.6°
Black and white
map projected  non-map

IRB color
map projected  non-map

Merged IRB
map projected

Merged RGB
map projected

RGB color
non-map projected

Black and white
map-projected   (59MB)

IRB color
map-projected   (32MB)

Black and white
map-projected  (29MB)
non-map           (32MB)

IRB color
map projected  (11MB)
non-map           (30MB)

Merged IRB
map projected  (57MB)

Merged RGB
map-projected  (51MB)

RGB color
non map           (26MB)
B&W label
Color label
Merged IRB label
Merged RGB label
EDR products

IRB: infrared-red-blue
RGB: red-green-blue
About color products (PDF)

Black & white is 5 km across; enhanced color about 1 km
For scale, use JPEG/JP2 black & white map-projected images

All of the images produced by HiRISE and accessible on this site are within the public domain: there are no restrictions on their usage by anyone in the public, including news or science organizations. We do ask for a credit line where possible:
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona.