Crater Rim Layers, Rubble, and Gullies
Crater Rim Layers, Rubble, and Gullies
ESP_015984_1335  Science Theme: Geologic Contacts/Stratigraphy
This is a close view of the rim and upper wall of an impact crater on the Martian surface. The layers in enhanced color are exposed subsurface strata that are relatively resistant to erosion. Boulder-like rubble beyond the crater rim is scattered down the wall of the crater (down-slope is toward the lower left of the image).

Another feature of interest to Mars scientists is a large gully roughly 100 meters across. These gullies may have formed when water from melted ice on the crater walls, or from groundwater within the walls, assisted in transporting eroding material downslope.

Written by: Christy Caudill  (7 August 2017)
Acquisition date
23 December 2009

Local Mars time

Latitude (centered)

Longitude (East)

Spacecraft altitude
253.8 km (157.7 miles)

Original image scale range
25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects ~76 cm across are resolved

Map projected scale
25 cm/pixel and North is up

Map projection

Emission angle

Phase angle

Solar incidence angle
70°, with the Sun about 20° above the horizon

Solar longitude
27.9°, Northern Spring

For non-map projected images
North azimuth:  97°
Sub-solar azimuth:  49.4°
Black and white
map projected  non-map

IRB color
map projected  non-map

Merged IRB
map projected

Merged RGB
map projected

RGB color
non-map projected

Black and white
map-projected   (754MB)

IRB color
map-projected   (329MB)

Black and white
map-projected  (353MB)
non-map           (451MB)

IRB color
map projected  (113MB)
non-map           (305MB)

Merged IRB
map projected  (189MB)

Merged RGB
map-projected  (182MB)

RGB color
non map           (322MB)
B&W label
Color label
Merged IRB label
Merged RGB label
EDR products

IRB: infrared-red-blue
RGB: red-green-blue
About color products (PDF)

Black & white is 5 km across; enhanced color about 1 km
For scale, use JPEG/JP2 black & white map-projected images

All of the images produced by HiRISE and accessible on this site are within the public domain: there are no restrictions on their usage by anyone in the public, including news or science organizations. We do ask for a credit line where possible:
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona.