South Polar Layered Deposits and Residual Ice Cap
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
South Polar Layered Deposits and Residual Ice Cap
PSP_006270_0955  Science Theme: Polar Geology


800  1024
1152  1280
1920  2048
A wide variety of south polar terrains are on display in this spectacular HiRISE color image. The reddish material in the upper two thirds of the image is the south polar layered deposits (SPLD). These deposits are a stack of layered, dusty water ice. Scientists believe that these layers record previous climatic conditions on Mars, much like terrestrial ice-sheets provide a record of climate change on the Earth.

This image shows the face of one of the many scarps or shallow cliffs that cut into the polar layered deposits. These scarps expose the internal layers within the SPLD. You can see these climate-recording layers in the upper two thirds of the image running from lower-left to upper-right.

The terrain in the lower third of the image is quite different in both appearance and composition. The bright, white-ish material is a thin covering of carbon dioxide ice draped over the flat areas of the SPLD. This covering of carbon dioxide is being eroded away by expanding flat-floored pits. Parts of the floors of these pits show the reddish brown coloring of the underlying polar layered deposits. These pits have eroded the carbon dioxide ice layer to such an extent that only isolated mesas remain today and even these shrink in extent by a few meters each year.

These mesas also have several layers within them, indicting that they likely contain a climatic record, albeit a much shorter one than preserved in the SPLD. Most of the isolated mesas have white-ish tops; however, some (near the foot of the SPLD scarp) have reddish tops. This may either be due to bright carbon dioxide ice thinning to reveal the older (and darker) carbon dioxide ice that makes up the main body of the mesa, or perhaps dust has settled out of the atmosphere to cover the brighter frost. There was a large Martian dust storm earlier this year which could have caused either effect.Written by: Shane Byrne  (26 December 2007)
twitter  •  facebook  •  google+  •  tumblr
Acquisition date
28 November 2007

Local Mars time:

Latitude (centered)

Longitude (East)

Range to target site
248.3 km (155.2 miles)

Original image scale range
49.7 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects ~149 cm across are resolved

Map projected scale
50 cm/pixel

Map projection

Emission angle:

Phase angle:

Solar incidence angle
85°, with the Sun about 5° above the horizon

Solar longitude
354.1°, Northern Winter

For non-map projected images
North azimuth:  119°
Sub-solar azimuth:  54.5°
Black and white
map projected  non-map

IRB color
map projected  non-map

Merged IRB
map projected

Merged RGB
map projected

RGB color
non-map projected

Black and white
map-projected   (381MB)

IRB color
map-projected   (183MB)

Black and white
map-projected  (176MB)
non-map           (245MB)

IRB color
map projected  (70MB)
non-map           (189MB)

Merged IRB
map projected  (313MB)

Merged RGB
map-projected  (294MB)

RGB color
non map           (171MB)
B&W label
Color label
Merged IRB label
Merged RGB label
EDR products

IRB: infrared-red-blue
RGB: red-green-blue
About color products (PDF)

Black & white is 5 km across; enhanced color about 1 km
For scale, use JPEG/JP2 black & white map-projected images

All of the images produced by HiRISE and accessible on this site are within the public domain: there are no restrictions on their usage by anyone in the public, including news or science organizations. We do ask for a credit line where possible:
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona.