Frosted Gullies in the Northern Summer
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
Frosted Gullies in the Northern Summer
ESP_019033_2495  Science Theme: Seasonal Processes
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Many images show that Martian gullies have formed on impact crater walls in both the Northern and Southern hemisphere. Gullies such as the ones shown here have an alcove at the top of the crater wall and channels leading downhill to debris aprons that run out over the crater floor.

Some of these gullies show activity today with new material appearing on top of the debris aprons. Many scientists believe that these gullies have been carved by liquid water so this present-day activity is of immense interest. Recently however, an alternate theory has been gaining ground.

An analysis of gully activity in craters and on sand dunes shows that activity seems to only occur in the winter at the coldest time of year. The alternate suggestion for gully activity is that accumulations of frost in the gully alcoves starts an avalanche of loose material that does not involve liquid water.

This HiRISE image shows shows gullies on a crater wall in the North polar region. Although it is late summer, you can see frost within the gully alcoves. These alcoves are on the poleward facing crater wall and so spend much of the time in shadow. This allows the frost to survive. The full-image shows that the opposite (south-facing) wall has similar gullies, but no frost during this season. Scientists are analyzing many images like this in order to try and answer the broader question of whether liquid water is responsible for the these gullies or not.

Written by: Shane Byrne   (22 September 2010)

This is a stereo pair with ESP_018809_2495.

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Acquisition date
18 August 2010

Local Mars time:
14:45

Latitude (centered)
69.272°

Longitude (East)
274.000°

Range to target site
326.7 km (204.2 miles)

Original image scale range
65.4 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects ~196 cm across are resolved

Map projected scale
50 cm/pixel

Map projection
Polarstereographic

Emission angle:
14.9°

Phase angle:
71.0°

Solar incidence angle
58°, with the Sun about 32° above the horizon

Solar longitude
134.9°, Northern Summer

North azimuth:
103°

Sub-solar azimuth:
329.3°
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Postscript
For information about NASA and agency programs on the Web, visit: http://www.nasa.gov. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona. The image data were processed using the U.S. Geological Survey’s ISIS3 software.