Cones Formed by Hot Lava Running over Water or Ice
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
Cones Formed by Hot Lava Running over Water or Ice
ESP_018747_2065  Science Theme: Volcanic Processes
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These cones are similar in size and shape to cones found in Iceland where hot lava has run over wet ground.

The heat from the lava boils the water which bursts through the lava flow. These steam-driven exploding bubbles of lava throw chunks of molten and solid lava into the air.

A long series of such explosions is needed to build up one of the large cones. The cones appear in chains because the surface of the lava flow was moving while the series of explosions were taking place. This is sort of like a miniature version of how the Hawaiian Island chain forms. The hot spot under Hawaii is fixed but the Earth's crust slides past it.

Written by: Lazslo Kestay   (1 September 2010)

This is a stereo pair with ESP_018457_2065.

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Acquisition date
27 July 2010

Local Mars time:
15:13

Latitude (centered)
26.262°

Longitude (East)
173.551°

Range to target site
305.8 km (191.1 miles)

Original image scale range
30.6 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects ~92 cm across are resolved

Map projected scale
25 cm/pixel and North is up

Map projection
Equirectangular

Emission angle:
19.6°

Phase angle:
63.9°

Solar incidence angle
45°, with the Sun about 45° above the horizon

Solar longitude
124.1°, Northern Summer

North azimuth:
97°

Sub-solar azimuth:
9.7°
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non-map           (346MB)

IRB color
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non-map           (265MB)

Merged IRB
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ANAGLYPHS
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Full resolution JP2 download
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DIGITAL TERRAIN MODEL (DTM)
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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
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EDR products
HiView

NB
IRB: infrared-red-blue
RGB: red-green-blue
About color products (PDF)

Black & white is 5 km across; enhanced color about 1 km
For scale, use JPEG/JP2 black & white map-projected images



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All of the images produced by HiRISE and accessible on this site are within the public domain: there are no restrictions on their usage by anyone in the public, including news or science organizations. We do ask for a credit line where possible:
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona



Postscript
For information about NASA and agency programs on the Web, visit: http://www.nasa.gov. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona. The image data were processed using the U.S. Geological Survey’s ISIS3 software.